Water and hydration: Physiological basis in Adults - Conclusion
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Water is the largest component of the human body, and is distributed throughout all tissues. The regulation of body water balance is therefore critical for maintaining homeostasis. Despite constant losses, the human body regulates efficiently its water balance, thanks to a fine control of urine volume and concentration.
This explains the broad range of fluid intakes observed in healthy individuals. However, the long-term health consequences of low or high fluid intake have been poorly investigated. Preliminary evidence seems to indicate that chronic low fluid intake may impact kidney health, as it may be associated with a more rapid decline of kidney function and higher risk of chronic kidney disease.
Additional research is therefore needed to evaluate the optimal daily fluid intake to prevent diseases or improve health, and to issue precise water intake guidelines for adults, but also for other demographic groups, such as children, pregnant and breastfeeding women, senior adults, and residents of hot climates.