Water intake and hydration physiology during childhood - As a conclusion
Physiology I. Characteristics of water physiology from infancy to adolescenceI.1. Body water contentI.2. Body water balanceI.2.1. Main water losses in childrenI.2.2. Water gainsI.3. Body water balance regulationI.3.1. Regulation by kidneysI.3.2. Thirst mechanismI.3.3. ThermoregulationHealth importanceII. Importance of adequate hydration for children's healthII.1. Assessing risk of dehydrationII.2. Hydration status and physical activityII.2.1. Effects of dehydration during physical activityII.2.2. Are children affected differently than adults during exercise?II.2.3. Water consumption and physical activityII.3. Hydration status and cognitive functionII.3.1. What is cognition?II.3.2. The impact of dehydration on cognitive function in childrenII.3.3. Beneficial effect of increasing water intakeConsumptionIII. The Challenge of hydration in childrenIII.1. Total water intakes and fluid consumption in childrenIII.1.1. Guidelines for total water intakeIII.1.2. Fluid consumption in childrenIII.2. Improved water intake: a corner-stone of childhood lifestyle programsIII.2.1. The promisingeffect of water intake on overweight preventionIII.2.2. A priority action for a healthier lifestyle in childrenIII.2.3. Action worldwide: example of a long-term development programAs a conclusionReferencesQuiz
As a conclusion
As a conclusion...
- Water physiology changes rapidly in the first years of life, and then more slowly to progressively reach adult physiology by adolescence.
- Despite physiological differences, children and adolescents have a thermoregulatory capacity comparable to adults.
- Kidneys reach maturity at about two years old, with urine concentrating and diluting capacity equivalent to adults.
- Mild dehydration (1-2% body weight) has a negative effect on effort tolerance and performance during physical activity, as well as on cognitive functions.
- Water is a healthy choice at any time. It has no calories, contains no sugars and no additives. As a consequence, improving water intake is increasingly considered as a priority action for healthier lifestyle in children.