IntroducciónIntroducciónEpidemiologíaI. Epidemiología de los cálculos renalesI. 1. Prevalencia de los cálculos renalesI. 2. Una tendencia en aumento entre los niñosPatofisiologíaII. Patofisiología de los cálculos renalesII. 1. LitogénesisII. 1.1. Sobresaturación urinaria: la fuerza impulsora de la cristalogénesisII. 1. 2. Promotores e inhibidores de la formación de cálculosII. 2. Volumen y composición de la orina: un equilibrio necesarioFactores de riesgoIII. Factores de riesgo para la formación de cálculosIII. 1. Factores de riesgo individuales, no modificablesIII. 1. 1. Antecedentes familiaresIII. 1. 2. Raza y etniaIII. 1. 3. Edad y géneroIII. 1. 4. Cambio actual en la prevalencia por géneroIII. 2. Factores relacionados con el estilo de vidaIII. 2. 1 Ingesta de calcioIII. 2. 2. Factores de riesgo dietético emergentesIII. 2. 3. Asociación con otras enfermedades crónicasDeshidratación IV. Deshidratación: un factor de riesgo para la formación de cálculos renalesIV. 1. Un volumen de orina bajo: un factor de riesgo confirmado para la formación de cálculos renalesIV. 2. Factores medioambientales que originan un volumen de orina bajoIV. 2. 1. Riesgo ocupacional de padecer cálculos renalesIV. 2. 2. El clima y la temperatura como factores de riesgoAgua y recurrenciaV. Prevención de la recurrencia de cálculos con una ingesta alta de aguaV. 1. Reducción del índice de recurrencia con el aumento de la ingesta de aguaV. 2. Ingesta de agua y parámetros urinarios en sujetos formadores de cálculosAgua y prevenciónVI. Prevención primaria de cálculos con una mayor ingesta de aguaVI. 1. Reducción de la incidencia de cálculos con el aumento de la ingesta de aguaVI. 2. Ingesta de agua y parámetros urinarios en sujetos sanosCostes sanitariosVII. Ingesta de agua y costes sanitarios de los cálculos renalesVII. 1. Reducción de los costes de la recurrencia de cálculos gracias a una ingesta de agua adecuadaVII. 2. Reducción de la incidencia de cálculos con una ingesta de agua adecuadaRecomendacionesVIII. Recomendaciones dietéticas y de ingesta de agua para prevenir cálculosVIII. 1. Pautas para la prevención de la recurrencia en pacientesVIII. 2. Pautas sobre la dieta y el consumo de agua destinadas a la población en generalConclusión ConclusiónReferencias

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Referencias

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